Bread Winners

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breadwinners
Food comes from an ecosystem that’s invisible from the perspective of the bowl. We don’t see much of the interplay, growth, and decay that provides our nourishment. Congruently, the constellation of people who make it possible for us to enjoy bread and each others’ company may not be visible. The Bread Winners talk was a time to bring out the faces, the voices, and joy behind our food — the stories of womyn.
Left to Right: Jules Exum, Leyna Lightman, Nan Kohler, Kate Pepper, Me!, Roxanna Jullapat

For my part, I wanted to honor those who came before, those who gave us the most basic element for life: seed. The effort to save seed has been largely undertaken by womyn. Be it a gendered task or not, our anthropological record shows that womyn across time and cultures saved seed. We have them to thank for our biodiversity, adaptability, survival, and lives.

Ten minutes is hardly enough time to honor the ten thousand years of seed saving work. I tried my best.

In the context of wheat, I spoke of Sally Fox who grew out Sonora for ten years and gifted farmers with that heirloom wheat of the Americas. Of course, I paid respect to Monica Spiller who birthed this heritage, whole grain revival. They are part of a bigger story.

I spoke of the seeds that nourished my family and of womyn who escaped war, persecution,

Photo credi: Sonya Sharp
Photo credi: Sonya Sharp

oppression by boat and brought me their seeds. They thought to carry seeds for soil they may never set foot on and for a future they might not have been part of.

I recounted this past fall, when my newly leased land for seed saving burned in the fires. I read the passage that my partner shared with me as I hand-separated seed from chaff and wondered about whether to find new land.

“For all the blacks that get crucified or hung from iron hooks through their ribs, escapes from Surinam’s four hundred coastal plantations never stop…

Before escaping, the female slaves steal grains of rice, corn, and wheat, seeds of bean and squash. Their enormous hairdos act as granaries. When they reach the refuges in the jungle, the women shake their heads and thus fertilize the free land.” — Eduardo Galeano Faces and Masks

The answer is yes, I must find land for seed.

Seeds feed us. They are part of the commons, and we must fight to keep them in the commons. We must resist the privatization of our commons by corporations and breeders who take what’s free and slap on a fee (mostly men). Taking away seeds — our food, our staple — is criminal. It is an offense to humanity.

This means we need to give back the seed. We need to value and compensate people who know how to steward and sustain seeds. We need to provide land for seed and practicing the diverse cultivation and management methods. Summary: free seed, pay farmers, provide land.

Misguided Food Waste

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The problem of food waste is misattributed as an issue of consumer ignorance, over-spending, or negligence. The individual is blamed, distracting the from the corporate and government investment in food waste. The systemic production of food waste became clear to me as a I sat starving and soaked in rancid animal fat, staring at a heap of edible, discarded food.

I dumpster dived for my daily meal for a couple years, especially during the Great Recession when it was difficult to make ends meet even with a college degree and three jobs. But, I knew exactly when Andronico’s and Elephant Pharmacy brought out their green waste. I rode up on my bike with panniers and plastic bags three times a week around 10 pm, hopped the fence, then loaded up on fruit and vegetables. I’d find apples, oranges, and perfectly ripe plantains and avocados. That’s right, no need to wait! Standing on over 300 lbs of food, I could be picky and check if the apples were mealy, oranges pithy, and fennel fragrant. Then, I’d bike to the bakeries and get their day-old bread that muffin-topped multiple dumpsters. I visited those once a month because each time would fill a freezer and friends’ freezers.

The treasure hunt was enjoyable, but more so was the socializing. I occasionally met other regular dumpster divers, came to know their food preferences, and saved special finds for them. One man was a bus driver for the university. His wife had cancer, so all his money went to her care. “She loves bright flowers, but they’re so expensive. They have nice flowers at this store,” he told me as we sifted through food for flora. I saved flowers for him and his wife every week from then on.

Others were people who wanted to redirect food back to people. They were part of the national, grassroots network called Food Not Bombs, which encourages distributing food instead of violence through war or incarceration. We dumpstered and solicited donations at farmers markets to gather enough food to prepare hot meals for anyone who wanted one.

On my personal dumpster runs, I’d bike home around midnight and start on several hours of food preparation. Scratches and bruises quickly spread to affect the rest of the fruit or vegetable, so I needed to immediately wash, cut, salt, and ferment my finds. I’d meticulously, surgically remove the necessary damage as not to detract from edible parts. The discards went into the compost I managed for the community garden where I applied this nutriment to the berries, greens, and fresh produce that I’d enjoy in summer.

I didn’t sign up for food stamps because I didn’t want to rely on the government. I internalized the social stigma associated with food stamps, so I ate garbage instead. (Note: I support SNAP/food stamps!) I ate fresh food everyday and never got sick. I perfected lacto-fermentation and finding ways to preserve food for a long time without using artificially generated heat or cold. It seemed a sustainable life.

One night I jumped a fence and slipped in spilled rendered fat spread around the dumpsters. As I sat in stinking, sticky tallow assessing for injuries, I looked up at the towering dumpster overflowing with food. My hustle, resourcefulness, and will to live gave way to an honest look at the situation. Massive amounts of food sat before me as my belly grumbled, as people starved and lived impoverished. How did this come to be?

The first reason that came to mind was the expectation that food looks perfect, and failure to meet the expectation meant expulsion. The Atlantic reported in 2016 that Americans waste 50% of harvested food, about 60 million tons, and a large reason is the cosmetic blemishes. We now see campaigns such as Ugly Produce is Beautiful, Imperfect Producr, and ugly produce boxes to get people to look past the surface. These initiatives are valuable to getting people to reconsider what they expect of food, but why do people have expectations of cosmetic perfection to begin with? And is the lack of scratches and bruises an accurate proxy for food food?

Marketing shows us dyed, elaborately lit, edited versions of food and conflates that image for good food. We constantly see food through a filter. Processed food, fast food, and a cultural pressure and norm to eat at the newest hot spot rid us of the need to know how to assess food. We no longer need our parents, family, community elders, and farmers who help us understand how to pick a green bean and cook it, too. We rely less on each other or even ourselves, and more so on Yelp reviews, Instagram likes, and professionals for our most basic need.

We rely on professionals all the way up the food chain, and at the top are the corporations that own everything right down to the seeds we rely on to make any food. They patent seeds from the commons and restrict how they can be saved and shared such that farmers, thus all of us, are beholden to them for our food.

They put out high yielding crops that create abundance of one type, and not the essential abundance of diversity, and creates the first major source of food waste. In the case of wheat, breeders created short stalk varieties so that the plant diverts energy from the stalk to producing a larger wheat berry. As I mentioned in my previous post, the nutritive parts are eliminated (‘waste’) and the endosperm is kept for flour that’s made into many different processed foods. With the flavor removed, who can tell the difference from one plant to the next, so why would it matter what seed it came from?

Note the shorter stalks. They would typically be used to return carbon to the soil. There isn’t enough nutrient cycling, plus the crops aren’t necessarily disease resistant or adaptable to different conditions, farmers depend on pesticides, herbicides, and chemicals provided by the very same seed companies or their subsidiaries. This results in the second kind of food waste: waste from the production of food.

The applications of petrochemical fertilizers lead to nitrogen run-off into waterways that cause algal blooms, choke fish, potable water contamination. Pesticides and herbicides accumulate in water, soil, air, and unborn children. This land use is applied to hundreds of thousands of acres, laying to waste once ecologically rich landscapes. The ripping of earth to imbue it with toxins also releases carbon emissions that cause atmospheric waste.

The waste from over-production and growing practices is government sanctioned and implemented by profiteering corporations. Government funded research and breeding efforts engineered high-yielding crops to solve issues of world hunger that were in reality results of colonialism and creating infrastructure to move food away from zones of production and to zones of consumption (of the wealthy nations, and wealthy people within those countries).

We see this lack of infrastructure needed to thoroughly distribute food and resources on the municipal scale, too. I see people talk about food waste as an issue of food scraps ending up in landfills. I heard from Dannon-Wave that Dan Barber is developing a pepper that has less stem and inner matter that is discarded by chefs. The argument is that it’s food waste that goes to landfill. That helps restaurants reduce their waste hauling expenses. The problem isn’t that it’s going to a landfill, the problem is that there isn’t a compost system to bring it back to the farm.

So, when the dialogue focuses on food scraps or people over-purchasing and neglecting to eat all their food as the reasons for food waste, it is only looking at the consumer end of the problem. Thus, the solutions presented, such as the less ‘wasteful’ pepper or eating more parts of the plant, only look at that part of the food chain.

The other piece I hear is that we need to take food waste and give it to poor people. Let’s remember that the over-abundance of food comes from a chemically-laden process that is carried with the food. Distributing that food means we are spreading food that is waste from the moment it started growing. That food will only worsen people’s conditions by contributing to endocrine disruption, diabetes and obesity in the case of processed foods, and carcinogen bioaccumulation.

Addressing the problem requires looking at the whole system, who’s responsible, and what interventions can be made that affect the entire structure. Production and consumption need to be linked. Food waste is desperately needed compost in this time of depleting top soil. Farmers rely on petrochemical fertilizers when they should be recouperating food that can be returned to the soil where it came from.

What we can do is direct public and private investment into the infrastructure that returns food to farms, seeds to farmers, and accountability to society. This shift will enable farmers to feed you quality food. Maybe it’ll have a cut or blemish, but it will be delicious.

Is enriched flour enough?

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The crispy croissant flakes coating my lips, fingertips, and more than a respectable amount of my face felt as crystalline as the sugar encrusted on the golden gluten. A new baker friend made these delicious pastries, and she sat down to talk with me despite having slept only 4 hours. She recently moved from San Francisco to Southern California, where she noted bakers are more focused on whole grain than their Northern California peers.

As a Northern California farmer, I found this fascinating because I’m accustomed to Mike Zakowski and Eli Colvin breads that are popular, whole grain breads in Sonoma County. I spend time in Los Angeles, where I don’t know anyone save perhaps Bub and Grandma who makes any 100% whole grain loaves. And they only make a couple loaves each round because there’s not a large demand. There’s one bakery that claims it does, but their crumb photos show impossible shine and bubble largess for 100% whole grain, and the quantity of grain they purchase compared to how many loaves they put out also indicates a discrepancy in what they say versus what they do. Obscuring their number and practices means they’re setting a standard for customers that’s ruinous for the whole grain movement. How can anyone else who bakes truly whole grain loaves ever compete against this farce? How will they know what’s real bread?

Meanwhile, in San Francisco, people aren’t ashamed of blending whole grain and sifted flour. They have lofty goals for the rise, and whole grain is a flavor enhancer. For the non-whole grain part, what’s the rest?

A recent phenomenon among bakers is to tout using local grain, and sifting out the bran and germ. (Remember that a wheat berry consists of a bran, germ, and endosperm. The endosperm is the starch, bran the outside with fiber and minerals, and germ inside with most of the amino acids, oils, and nutrients.) That leaves the endosperm for flour that looks white, requires less hydration, and has much sugar and gluten to feed the yeast that leavens the bread.

This also replicates the malnutrition problems we learned about in the 1940s. When people relied on refined flour, they developed neural, gastrointestinal, skin diseases, and conditions known as beriberi and Pellagra. These preventable diseases came about because they were denied whole grains.

The response wasn’t to reinvigorate whole grain production, but rather to enrich flour. US FDA regulations mandate that refined flours be enriched with B vitamins (folic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin) and iron. As I talked with this baker about blending whole grain and enriched flour, I wondered: is enriched flour a sufficient substitute for the whole grain?

The very obvious answer is no. First off, the sifted flour removed the bran that holds fiber. Fiber slows down digestion of wheat and raises its glycemic index. (My cousins often gripe to me about wheat being a simple carb, but it’s simple because someone simplified it! Wheat isn’t inherently simple.) Amino acids, nutritive oils, potassium, copper, and so much more is not replaced. Enrichment is like living off emergency food tablets — it gives you enough to survive, but not enough to thrive.

While I’m satisfied knowing that enriched flour is not a one-for-one substitute for whole grain qualities, I remained curious about what’s actually in enriched flour. What are the enrichment additives made out of?

After a few hours in the university nutritional health archive, I learned that synthetic thiamine and niacin are derived from coal tar with the help of ammonia, formaldehyde, and other acids. (This fascinating origin trail inspired me to look into synthetic Vitamin D, which comes from irradiated animal fat.) Synthetic thiamine and folic acid take crystalline forms that the body doesn’t easily absorb and can bioaccumulate in places like joints and damage tissue.

While these vitamins fulfill regulatory standards, they come from petrochemical and resource-intensive processes that unnecessarily enlarge wheat’s carbon footprint and aren’t necessarily benefitting us eaters. Some other things I came across:

  • How are nutrients so throughly removed? Bleach. That’s why some flour bags say unbleached, but it’s still just a sad excuse for flour.
  • Size matters because the smaller the flour, the faster it is for our body to digest and convert carbs into sugars. That’s part of why stone-milled flour is a better option over the roller or impact milled flour that’s found in the store.
  • Organic flour isn’t enriched, so if you buy organic flour it certainly should be whole wheat.
  • Fermentation, such as natural-leavening from a sourdough yeast, substantially increases bioavailable B vitamins. 

Thus, the answer to my original question, “Is enriched flour enough?” is, “No!” We need organic, stone-milled, whole grain and a long fermentation when it comes to making bread. So, while I enjoyed having crispy carb and sugar flakes on my face, and oh goodness was it delicious, I will eat these sifted and enriched flour creations sparingly.

Oh, and let’s not forget about the role of farming! The quantity and quality of the nutrients in grain depends on the nutrients in the soil, and those nutrients are developed through the cultivation of soil organic matter, microbes, balanced minerals, and high cation exchange capacity. That’s done through cover cropping, animal rotation, and no-till farming, to grossly oversimplify the process. (see: all previous and future blog posts) All that work for heritage grains that capture carbon and then to throw away all the flavor and nutrients? Please don’t dis my labor by discarding the things I nurtured for you!

Many questions remain about this massive grain system, such as:

  • How did flour enrichment get regulated? Is it only because WWII soldiers were negatively affected by it?
  • Has the list of enrichment additives changed over time? Why those in particular?
  • How do we get whole grains out there? Oh yeah, that’s why I started the California Grain Campaign. You can be part of it, too!

What are your questions about our grain economy?

 

Feb 22: San Diego Grain Party!

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The talented chefs and bakers of Chinitas Pies, Wayfarer Bread, and Cardamom Cafe will be using my Red Fife and Chiddam Blanc de Mars to make a grand array of delectables this Thursday, Feb 22. Come eat and talk whole grains with fellow San Diegan grain enthusiasts. Door prizes, beer, and lots of food included with your ticket.

Get your TICKETS HERE.

Neighborly Cows

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Good neighbors have good fences, but also open them up for sharing the pasture. (Take that, Garret Hardin!)

I prefer bringing in sheep to graze because their light weight doesn’t create compaction the way these charismatic megafauna do, but the short turn-around time for grazing before seeding necessitated animals who could clear the cover crop quickly. Also, cow manure is more wet than sheep manure and has a good carbon-nitrogen ratio for immediate use.

Thanks, cows!

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Refresh Button

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I am grateful to unions for fighting for the weekend. Without the weekend, I wouldn’t be able to work two full-time jobs and coordinate several other projects.

So, thank goodness for vacation days. I racked them up and finally went on a honeymoon. We admired the full moon from the center of an Amazonian lake as a new Gregorian year dawned. We tried wild fruits with flavors more complex than a Mandelbrot set, and I poked bright orange mushrooms and oohed and ahhhed at deep purple ones. Through the varied ecosystems, elevations, and climates, I thought about work and grains for only one day. Truly a miracle!

On our spiritual journey, I discovered that my spirit foods are mangoes, cotton candy, and som tam. Ask me about that in person some time.

I’m not giving you all the details because honeymoons and romance are about mystery. Especially for the sake of my parents and potential progeny. The point is that I feel refreshed and ready for 2018.

And it’s starting off with me talking at people:

  • Jan 20, Cascadia Grain Conference: I’ll be on a panel with June Russell of GrowNYC and David Bauermeister of the Northwest Agricultural Business Center to talk about regional grain networks. Otherwise, find me stuffing my face with Annie Moss’s baked goods.
  • Jan 24-27, EcoFarm: This year I’m only on 3 instead of 4 panels — hahaha! I’ll be talking about 1) Cooperatives, 2) Heritage Grains, 3) Alternative Financing for Farms + Farm Succession. The night of the 26th will be the California Grain Campaign and Slow Food CA California Grain mixer. That’s free and open to the public, so come see me there!
  • Feb 2, San Diego Little Italy Mercato: Grain Campaign Roadshow with Min Kim of Min’s Kitchen and Christina Ng of Chinitas Pies

See you soon!

NYFC Final Blog Post: Sustainable Farming Depends on Sustaining Farmers

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I am writing in the aftermath of the Tubbs and Mendocino Lake Complex fires that devastated my farm community. To remain optimistic, I think of what I’m grateful for. In this context, I’m honored that the National Young Farmers Coalition invited me to share my farming experiences and reflections, and I appreciate King Arthur Flour’s support of this project. I thank you, the reader, for taking interest in the lives of young grain farmers. Andrew, Halee, and John have inspired me with their different approaches and techniques, and I wish them great success. We should all be able to enjoy responsibly-grown food while living in a cared-for environment.

But collective success requires collective action. It took community cooperation to nourish and shelter those displaced by the fire, and continued collaboration will be required for rebuilding homes and farms. We as a society must work together to address farming’s broader challenges.

The primary challenge is compensation.

Sustainable farming depends first on our ability to sustain farmers. Our country has never equitably compensated farm labor, and has too often worked actively against it. We haven’t invested in the human and environmental health conditions for safe farming and eating. Is it a wonder, then, why young people don’t remain in or take up farm work?

Mai got to meet fellow Heart and Grain bloggers John and Halee Wepking … in the grain aisle! Photo from @sonomagrain on Instagram.

When I first sought work experience on organic farms, my main option was to be an intern. Internships purport to provide a guided learning experience that combines mentorship, education, and practice. The reality is that I worked 60-70 hours a week and held major responsibilities. Compensation included a stipend, food, and housing. I argued my way up from $300 a month to $500 a month. Food came from the farm, which for three months meant lettuce and carrots supplemented by some grain and protein. I had my own room, which in one case was a former cannabis warehouse and in another case was a former quarry checkpoint shed. Neither place was well insulated from the alternately chilly or scorching temperatures. My life was limited to the farm because I couldn’t afford a vehicle, fuel, or insurance. I applied for SNAP so I could afford the food I grew and what was on sale at the Grocery Outlet. I had no health insurance.

I remember wondering how I could ever save enough money to rent my own land and pay for living expenses through the 12 months between grain cultivation and harvest during which no money comes in. Farming is one of the rare businesses in which inputs are purchased at retail prices and products are sold at wholesale prices. The equipment required for grain farming is also an expensive upfront cost.

I asked other farmers how they started. There were three typical responses: they had inherited a large sum of money, land, or both; they previously worked in investment capital or Silicon Valley tech; or they had investors who provided land, housing, capital, or all three.

How is a farmer to start if they don’t have access to such resources? Are we to rely solely on a landed and wealthy class to continue farming? If so, will they represent the geography, biodiversity, and financial accessibility required to maintain our agricultural economy? More importantly, are there enough of them to feed all of us?

To give young people the option to farm, we need to:

  • compensate all farmers for their work, regardless of citizenship, while creating pathways to citizenship;
  • form opportunities for farmers to learn from others and through experience without exploitation or increasing financial debt;
  • ensure safe and healthy farming conditions;
  • cultivate culturally-relevant and indigenous crops;
  • maintain a rich diversity of seed in the commons;
  • support and reward environmentally-conscientious farming;
  • expand our idea of who a farmer is and equitably provide resources for those who choose to farm;
  • keep farmland in agricultural production and make it affordable for long-term stewardship; and
  • promote cooperation and cooperatives that help farmers scale and expand their reach.

Taking those steps will help farmers get started. Keeping them going will require revisiting the subject of compensation. Compensation reflects values. Our society has long undervalued farm work and the workers themselves. We undervalue food and discard it thoughtlessly.

The Grain Catalog is one of Mai’s projects to help promote California grain farmers.

Now, I invite you to take a moment to consider what you value most. What is most precious? For me, it’s human consciousness. It is the most unique thing in the universe. Our existence creates ever more unique moments. My mom’s smile when I baked her bread from my grains will never happen again. That sigh of relief and delight when your child is born cannot be replicated. Me, you, and everyone we know will not exist again.

To live well, we must eat, breathe, and drink well. The people we depend on for our wellness are farmers, and we farmers need to be supported. What if we valued that work that daily and deeply affects us? What if our society valued farmers not only for their measurable productive power but also for their personhood? What if we valued how our food is grown and how it lends to the soil and to our health? What if we valued the conditions our food is grown in, so that those same conditions, or even better, exist for future generations? What if we valued life?

But we do hold these values. I know it because I have heard so many of us express them. So let’s work on better reflecting them: our values in our politics, our values in our purchasing choices, and our values in relationships with farmers. Our values expressed in and through all of our relationships to one another.